Covid is a corona virus disease caused by SARS COV 2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2). So named because this disease often infects the lungs. The first cases of the disease were revealed in China in December 2019, hence the name COVID-19 (COVID 19). Previously the virus only arrived in parts of East Asia in 2002 and at that time was named SARS COV 1. This virus could be either a DNA virus (deoxy-ribo nucleic acid) or RNA (ribo-nucleic acid). Corona virus is an RNA virus. Nucleic acids are the genetic object like the human body’s soul for this virus. Therefore, in order to detect a viral infection in the body, we must find the soul of the virus. Several tests are performed to detect nucleic acids or spirits. Tell us details about the investigation here .. -What is the way to detect Kovid-19 Two methods are being adopted to detect viruses: RTPCR and RAT (Card Test). -What is RTPCR?RTPCR stands for Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, also known as real-time PCR. This method is used to amplify RNA (such as producing multiple copies) because viruses are present in very small amounts in RNA. This is greatly enhanced so that the presence of the virus can be detected accurately in a short time. Because the machine only takes 3-6 hours to produce the test results, due to the large number of samples, it takes time to report them. -What do positive and negative reports mean? A true positive means that the virus has been detected in the investigation and it is actually in the samples taken. If the test report is positive, it means the virus is in the sample. False positive means the virus was not detected correctly in the test while the virus was not in the sample (this could be because the sample was inaccurate) (a positive test report means the virus was not in the sample). A true negative means that the test has not actually detected the presence of the virus (a negative test report means the virus was not in the sample). False negative means that the virus has not been detected in the test even though the sample contains virus (a negative test report means the virus is in the sample). In this way, a positive RTPCR examination implies the presence of the virus but a negative report does not mean that the virus is not always present. Therefore, the RTPCR test was requested to be carried out once again.
-How sensitive is RTPCR? Sensitive means its ability to detect viruses. For example, an ability test that could give a true positive result. The presence of SARS COV 2 by the RTPCR probe on swab samples taken from the nose and throat was corrected by up to 85%. This means that 85 out of 100 samples give positive results. It is possible that the virus may be present in the remaining 15 samples but not detected in the RTPCR probe (false negative). In this case, if the RTPCR check is performed again, the virus can be detected. That is why it is advisable to repeat this investigation if the first RTPCR probe is negative. -How specific is the RTPCR probe? This specifically means that if the virus is not present in the sample, it can be detected by investigation. Fix negative test results for example. The specificity of the RTPCR probe for detecting the SARS COV 2 virus on nose and throat swabs was about 98%. This means that of the 100 samples there are only two samples so that there are false positive results, which means that even though there is no virus in the sample, the results of the investigation reveal the existence of the virus. Because RTPCR has good specificity, a positive test report is considered truly positive and it is also believed that the person has an infection. Therefore, a re-investigation is not necessary in this situation. -What does the CT value in the RTPCR probe mean? CT means Cycle Threshold. This means that the virus is detected after playing it. The lower the CT value, the greater the presence of virus in the patient’s body because the virus is detected in several rounds. – Does having a high CT score mean the disease is worse? No, there is no correlation between CT scores and disease severity. The CT score only shows that there is more virus in the patient’s body and therefore it is more contagious, which means that the patient can infect more people. In this case, 24 has been considered the limit, patients who have a CT value of less than 24, are believed to be able to spread the disease more than a CT value of more than 24. -What is a RAT? RAT stands for Rapid Antigen Test. In contrast to RTPCR, protein was detected in the swab on RAT while RNA was detected in RTPCR. RAT advantages over RTPCR? As the name itself suggests, RAT is a quick test and it generates a test within 15-30 minutes. Advantages of RTPCR over RAT? RAT sensitivity is less than 50%, so if a patient has symptoms of infection and the RAT test result is negative, then the patient cannot be considered negative and an RTPCR test is necessary. -How is a sample taken from the body for this test? Swab samples are required from the nose and throat. -When was this investigation done? As soon as symptoms appear on your body or you come into contact with a Covid patient. -When do you have to repeat this investigation? If the patient has no symptoms and has recovered, it is not necessary to double-check because the virus detected in the examination is not the disease. So if the patient is cured, then if the test result is also positive then you don’t need to worry. If your employer asks you to check it as evidence that you are negative for returning to work, then the test can be done again or if necessary to travel. (Dr. Niket Rai, MBBS MD, Maulana Azad Delhi college)



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